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FAQs

ARO 2021 VIRTUAL CONFERENCE
Zoom Meeting Links will be sent the week of the conference.
 

  1. Click on the meeting link provided in the conference agenda planner to open Zoom and enter the meeting.
  2. Enter your name and email address so others in the room will know who you are.
  3. Click ‘full screen’ to make the meeting screen cover the entirety of your display.
  4. To submit a question – point mouse to the bottom of the screen and a Q&A button will pop up.
  5. Once the Q&A button has been clicked, a dialogue box pops up.
  6. Enter your question and select if you would like it sent to all panelists or a specific panelist.  Questions will be answered at the end of each session.

 
GETTING STARTED WITH ZOOM

  1. Where do I download the latest version of Zoom?
    You can download the latest version of Zoom from our Download Center. Learn more about downloading Zoom.

 

  1. How to I use Zoom on my PC or Mac?
    After downloading Zoom, learn how to use the Zoom Desktop Client.
     
  2. How do I sign up for Zoom?
    You can sign up for a free Zoom account at zoom.us/signup.

 
JOINING A MEETING

  1. How do I join a Zoom meeting?
    You can join a meeting by clicking the meeting link provided in the conference agenda planner or going to join.zoom.us and entering in the meeting ID. Learn more about joining a meeting. 

 

  1. How do I use my computer/device’s audio instead of using a phone?
    On most devices, you can join computer/device audio by clicking Join Audio, Join with Computer Audio, or Audio to access the audio settings. Learn more about connecting your audio.
     
  2. Can I Use Bluetooth Headset?
    Yes, as long as the Bluetooth device is compatible with the computer or mobile device that you are using.

 

  1. Do I have to have a webcam to join on Zoom?
    While you are not required to have a webcam to join a Zoom Meeting or Webinar, you will not be able to transmit video of yourself unless you do. Without a webcam, you will be able to listen and speak during the meeting, share your screen, and view the webcam video of other participants.

TIPS

  1. You can enter and exit the meeting as often as you need. To exit the meeting, click the red “exit meeting” on the bottom right-hand of your screen.
  2. You can leave a meeting and enter a concurrent meeting as often as you would like.  Please refer to the schedule for all the meeting links.

 
TROUBLESHOOTING LINKS

  • My video/camera isn’t working.

Read tips on troubleshooting a camera that won’t start or show video.
 

  • There is echo in my meeting.     

Echo can be caused by many things, such as a participant connected to the meeting audio on multiple devices or two participants joined in from the same room. If a speaker has an open mic and is using speakers while talking the feedback loop between their speakers and microphone will cause echo and a high-pitched noise. 
Learn about common causes of audio echo.
 

  • My audio isn’t working on my mobile device.

Read tips on troubleshooting audio that isn’t working on your iOS or Android device.


ARE POSTER ABSTRACTS PUBLISHED?

No. Abstracts and program books from past meetings are viewable on the ARO past MidWinter meetings page of the website, https://aro.org/meetings/past-midwinter-meetings/

 

DOES ARO ACCEPT ENCORE PRESENTATIONS?

Original data presentations are preferred; However, encore presentations may be submitted.

 

WHAT IS ARO’S MEDIA EMBARGO POLICY?

Any press release(s) issued by a presenter, the presenter’s employer, or any other outside person or entity about a presentation scheduled for the ARO MidWinter Meeting must be embargoed until the time and date of the presentation and should be clear that it is not sanctioned by ARO.  This includes any detail of the abstract and title.

 

ARE ABSTRACT SUBMISSIONS COPYWRITTEN?

All materials submitted for presentation at the MidWinter Meeting will be published in appropriate ARO materials. Submissions should be original and not previously published. Following publication, authors may reuse their work with the sole requirements of full citation and link to the original publication online.

 

ARE PUBLISHED OR UNPUBLISHED POSTER/PODIUM ABSTRACT SUBMISSIONS APPRORPIATE?

Unpublished, recently completed, or “in-press” studies are strongly preferred but inclusion of some published data is acceptable.

 

I began studying the vestibular system during my dissertation research at the Università di Pavia with Professors Ivo Prigioni and GianCarlo Russo. I had two postdoctoral fellowships, first at the University of Rochester with Professor Christopher Holt and then at the University of Illinois at Chicago with Professors Jonathan Art and Jay Goldberg.

My research focuses on characterizing the biophysics of synaptic transmission between hair cells and primary afferents in the vestibular system. For many years an outstanding question in vestibular physiology was how the transduction current in the type I hair cell was sufficient, in the face of large conductances on at rest, to depolarize it to potentials necessary for conventional synaptic transmission with its unique afferent calyx.

In collaboration with Dr. Art, I overcame the technical challenges of simultaneously recording from type I hair cells and their enveloping calyx afferent to investigate this question. I was able to show that with depolarization of either hair cell or afferent, potassium ions accumulating in the cleft depolarize the synaptic partner. Conclusions from these studies are that due to the extended apposition between type I hair cell and its afferent, there are three modes of communication across the synapse. The slowest mode of transmission reflects the dynamic changes in potassium ion concentration in the cleft which follow the integral of the ongoing hair cell transduction current. The intermediate mode of transmission is indirectly a result of this potassium elevation which serves as the mechanism by which the hair cell potential is depolarized to levels necessary for calcium influx and the vesicle fusion typical of glutamatergic quanta. This increase in potassium concentration also depolarizes the afferent to potentials that allow the quantal EPSPs to trigger action potentials. The third and most rapid mode of transmission like the slow mode of transmission is bidirectional, and a current flowing out of either hair cell or afferent into the synaptic cleft will divide between a fraction flowing out into the bath, and a fraction flowing across the cleft into its synaptic partner.

The technical achievement of the dual electrode approach has enabled us to identify new facets of vestibular end organ synaptic physiology that in turn raise new questions and challenges for our field. I look forward with great excitement to the next chapter in my scientific story.

 

Charles C. Della Santina, PhD MD is a Professor of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery and Biomedical Engineering at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, where he directs the Johns Hopkins Cochlear Implant Center and the Johns Hopkins Vestibular NeuroEngineering Laboratory.

As a practicing neurotologic surgeon, Dr. Della Santina specializes in treatment of middle ear, inner ear and auditory/vestibular nerve disorders. His clinical interests include restoration of hearing via cochlear implantation and management of patients who suffer from vestibular disorders, with a particular focus on helping individuals disabled by chronic postural instability and unsteady vision after bilateral loss of vestibular sensation. His laboratory’s research centers on basic and applied research supporting development of vestibular implants, which are medical devices intended to partially restore inner ear sensation of head movement. In addition to that work, his >90 publications include studies characterizing inner ear physiology and anatomy; describing novel clinical tests of vestibular function; and clarifying the effects of cochlear implantation, vestibular implantation, superior canal dehiscence syndrome and intratympanic gentamicin therapy on the inner ear and central nervous system.  Dr. Della Santina is also the founder and CEO/Chief Scientific Officer of Labyrinth Devices LLC, a company dedicated to bringing novel vestibular testing and implant technology into routine clinical care.

Andrew Griffith received his MD and PhD in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry from Yale University in 1992. He completed his general surgery internship and a residency in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the University of Michigan in 1998. He also completed a postdoctoral research fellowship in the Department of Human Genetics as part of his training at the University of Michigan. In 1998, he joined the Division of Intramural Research (DIR) in the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). He served as a senior investigator, the chief of the Molecular Biology and Genetics Section, the chief of the Otolaryngology Branch, and the director of the DIR, as well as the deputy director for Intramural Clinical Research across the NIH Intramural Research Program. His research program identifies and characterizes molecular and cellular mechanisms of normal and disordered hearing and balance in humans and mouse models. Two primary interests of his program have been hearing loss associated with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct, and the function of TMC genes and proteins. The latter work lead to the discovery that the deafness gene product TMC1 is a component of the hair cell sensory transduction channel. Since July of 2020, he has served as the Senior Associate Dean of Research and a Professor of Otolaryngology and Physiology in the College of Medicine at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center.

Gwenaëlle S. G. Géléoc obtained a PhD in Sensory Neurobiology from the University of Sciences in Montpellier (France) in 1996. She performed part of her PhD training at the University of Sussex, UK where she characterized sensory transduction in vestibular hair cells and a performed a comparative study between vestibular and cochlear hair cells. Gwenaelle continued her training as an electrophysiologist at University College London studying outer hair cell motility and at Harvard Medical School studying modulation of mechanotransduction in vestibular hair cells. As an independent investigator at the University of Virginia, she expanded this work and characterized the developmental acquisition of sensory transduction in mouse vestibular hair cells, the developmental acquisition of voltage-sensitive conductances in vestibular hair cells and the tonotopic gradient in the acquisition of sensory transduction in the mouse cochlea. This work along with quantitative spatio-temporal studies performed on several hair cell mechanotransduction candidates lead her to TMC1 and 2 and long-term collaborations with Andrew Griffith and Jeff Holt. Dr. Géléoc is currently Assistant Professor of Otolaryngology, at Boston Children’s Hospital where she continues to study molecular players involved in the development and function of hair cells of the inner ear and develops new therapies for the treatment of deafness and balance, with a particular focus on Usher syndrome.

Jeff Holt earned a doctorate from the Department of Physiology at the University of Rochester in 1995 for his studies of inward rectifier potassium channels in saccular hair cells.  He went on to a post-doctoral position in the Neurobiology Department at Harvard Medical School and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, where he characterized sensory transduction and adaptation in hair cells and developed a viral vector system to transfect cultured hair cells.  Dr. Holt’s first faculty position was in the Neuroscience Department at the University of Virginia.  In 2011 the lab moved to Boston Children’s Hospital / Harvard Medical School.  Dr. Holt is currently a Professor in the Departments of Otolaryngology and Neurology in the F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center.  Dr. Holt and his team have been studying sensory transduction in auditory and vestibular hair cells over the past 20 years, with particular focus on TMC1 and TMC2 over the past 12 years.  This work lead to the discovery that TMC1 forms the hair cell transduction channel.  His work also focuses on development gene therapy strategies for genetic hearing loss.